Breast cancer is a complex disease. The extent of the growth of the tumor is decided by the size of the tumor and how far it has spread in your body called the stage of cancer.
There are five basic stages 0 through IV.
The treatment for breast cancer will depend upon the following factors:
- The type of breast cancer you have.
- How fast it is growing.
- Your age and how healthy you are.
Most women with breast cancer have to undergo breast cancer surgery as part of their treatment. There are different types of breast cancer surgery which can be done for different reasons depending on the situation. For example:
- The breast cancer surgery may be done to remove the whole breast or just the tumor and tissues around it. This is known as breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy.
- To determine whether the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes under the arm (sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection).
- To perform breast reconstruction surgery in order to restore the shape of the breast after breast cancer surgery.
- Breast cancer surgery may be done to relieve symptoms of advanced cancer.
Breast cancer surgery
There are two main types of breast cancer surgery to remove breast cancer.
- Breast-conserving surgery. This is also called a lumpectomy, partial mastectomy, or segmental mastectomy. In breast-conserving surgery the part of the breast containing the cancer is removed. The aim is to remove the cancer as well as some surrounding normal tissue. The size of breast to be removed depends on how big the tumor is as well as where the tumour is situated.
- Mastectomy is a surgery in which the entire breast is removed which includes all of the breast tissues and sometimes other nearby tissues. There are several types of mastectomies. Some women will also have to undergo a double mastectomy in which both the breasts are removed.
Many women with early-stage cancer have the option to choose between breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and mastectomy. The main advantage of BCS is that most of the breast can be kept by a woman. But in most cases she will have to undergo radiation. Women who undergo mastectomy for early-stage cancer are less likely to need radiation.
Lymph nodes’ surgery
To determine if the breast cancer has spread to underarm (axillary) lymph nodes, one or more lymph nodes will be removed and tested in the lab. This is an important part of figuring out the stage or the extent of the cancer.
There are two main types of surgery to eradicate lymph nodes. They are:
- Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). In this procedure, the surgeon removes only the lymph nodes under the arm where cancer would likely spread first.
- Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). In this procedure, the surgeon removes many lymph nodes under the arm. ALND is not done as frequently as it was done in the past.
Breast reconstruction after breast cancer surgery
Many women who have undergone breast cancer surgery might have the option of breast reconstruction. A woman who has had a mastectomy will want to have her breast mound rebuilt to restore the breast’s appearance after surgery.
There are different types of reconstructive surgery, but your options may depend on your medical condition and personal preferences. There can be a choice between having breast construction at the same time as the breast cancer surgery. This is called immediate reconstruction. Otherwise, you can have the reconstruction at a later time. This is called delayed reconstruction.
Dr. Suresh Advani, Jaslok Hospital
Suresh H. Advani is an oncologist who was one of the first surgeons to carry out a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Dr. Suresh H. Advani was struck by polio at the tender age of 8. He completed his MBBS degree and MD from Grant Medical College in Mumbai. This wheelchair-bound doctor then worked at Tata Memorial Center for several years as an oncologist.
Dr. Sresh Advani became the Chief of Medical Oncology at the Tata Memorial Hospital. He also started the Oncology Department at Jaslok Hospital in Mumbai. He is the chief medical and paediatric oncologist and haemato-oncologist at Jaslok Hospital.
Dr. Suresh Advani is the Director of the Oncology Department at Jaslok Hospital and Research Center in Mumbai. Jaslok Hospital is situated at Peddar Road, South Mumbai facing the Arabian Sea.
Dr. Suresh Advani got the opportunity to work with Nobel laureate Dr. E Donnall Thomas, who is known as the father of bone marrow transplantation in the United States of America.
Dr. Suresh Advani is the recipient of the Padma Bhushan award, the country’s third-highest civilian award in the year 2012 by the Indian Government. He was also honoured with Padma Shri, the country’s fourth-highest civilian award in the year 2002 by the Indian Government. He was also awarded the Dhanvantari Award for excellence in the field of medicine.
Dr. Suresh Advani had to face hostility when he applied for admission to medicine at Grant Medical College. He was rejected as they were not willing to admit a “crippled” person. Dr. Suresh Advani was not going to give up that easily. He wrote to the hospital authorities, ministers and others, asking for their intervention in this issue. Finally, Grant Medical College gave him permission to pursue MBBS as a day scholar.
Dr. Advani is a hard worker. Being physically challenged does not stop him from executing his duties as a doctor. He is constantly on the move that is if he is in one hospital in the morning then he will be in another hospital in the evenings. His achievements are an inspiration to many doctors, patients and people who know him. His dedication and passion towards his work has made him one of the best oncologists in the world.