The knee joint is considered as the complicated joint of the human body, and if the cartilage of the bone is damaged by arthritis or any injury, there is no chance to repair it by natural ways. The knee joint consists of a combination of three bones, the patella (knee cap), distal femoral condyles (thigh bone) and the proximal tibial plateau (leg bone). The end of the bone is shielded with ‘articular cartilage’ which helps the knee to move freely.
What is Knee Replacement Surgery?
Knee replacement surgery is performed to improve the movement of the knee joint that the patient is suffering for a long time and also reduces the intense pain and swelling. During the knee replacement surgery, the damaged/ worn-out surface is removed and replaced with the metal implants. For Knee Replacement Surgery in Delhi, there are types of surgeries, i.e. total or partial, which are performed by the orthopaedics according to the condition of the patient.
What are the causes behind Knee Replacement Surgery?
Generally, Osteoarthritis is considered as a common reason behind the knee replacement surgery that usually affects patients aged 50 or above. However, the cases of young people are also rising these days. Then the other is Rheumatoid arthritis which is chronic inflammation that damages cartilage of the knee causing pain, stiffness and soreness to the extreme level. And lastly, Post-traumatic arthritis which is caused due to the severe knee injury where the bones or ligaments tears affecting the huge damage to the cartilage.
Some other factors are also present which are;
- Patient born with a knee deformity
- Any kind of previous traumatic joint injury
- Overuse of joints
- Meniscus tear
- And old age factors
Diagnosis of Knee Replacement Surgery
Before the Knee Replacement Surgery, few preparatory and diagnostic test are instructed by the orthopaedic surgeon that includes X-ray, ECG, blood count check and urine test just to ensure the patient can bear the procedure of surgery.
X-ray is done to check the exact location of the damaged part of the knee joint.
Procedure of the Knee Replacement Surgery
Knee replacement surgery requires general anaesthesia which makes the patient unconscious, and spinal anaesthesia, which enables the patient to not to feel pain from the lower waist region. Also, the intravenous antibiotic is injected to prevent post-surgery infection.
The knee will be kept in a bent position, and after that, the surgeon will make an incision about 6 to 10 inches and remove the damaged joint surface by moving the kneecap aside. In the meantime, the joint surfaces are prepared, and the surgeon will attach the metal implants as the artificial joint. Before closing the incision, the patient’s knee is checked by rotating and bending movements to ensure its proper functionality.
After one or two, the patient is shifted to the hospital room, and further procedure will be continued as prescribing medications, exercises as so on.
Precautions after Knee Replacement Surgery
Patients need to take measures after knee replacement surgery until the duration of the recovery period. There are few points to be followed as the modification in the daily routine;
- Attendants have to take care that there will be no obstacles in the patient’s path like carpets, cords, etc.
- Walk and use the staircase with secure handrails/safety bars even during a bath.
- If someone has a low toilet, then use a toilet seat raiser. Avoid Indian commode
- Always sit with maintaining an elevation of 18 to 20 inch, use a stable chair with a firm seat cushion.
- No cross leg sitting
- Restrict high-level activities like sports or heavy physical work.
Recovery after Knee Replacement Surgery
After the successful results of the Knee Replacement Surgery, the period of recovery usually takes place within 4-6 weeks. The patient will be instructed to go home after one week of hospitalization. Although at home the patient has to take care of the wound, stitches or staples will be removed after 15-20 days of the surgery till the time one has to avoid the soaking of the wound in water. Continue with the bandage and change it as instructed by the doctor.
Also, the balanced diet is necessary to be maintained to restore the muscle strength, take an iron supplement as instructed. Patients must follow the exercises that will help to resume most of the normal life activities with better ease and strength. Follow a physiotherapy routine. After 4-6 weeks, significant recovery will be observed by the patients, most of them even are allowed to drive if they are comfortable in a sitting car with proper knee bending.